Background: The MYC oncogene is frequently over-expressed in prostate cancer (PC). Upregulation of ribosome biogenesis and function is characteristic of MYC-driven tumors. Additionally, PIM kinases activate MYC signaling and mRNA translation in PC and cooperate with MYC to accelerate tumorigenesis. Here, we investigate the efficacy of a single and dual approach at targeting ribosome biogenesis and function to treat PC. Experimental design: The inhibition of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis with CX-5461, a potent, selective and orally bioavailable inhibitor of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription has been successfully exploited therapeutically, but only in models of hematological malignancy1,2. CX-5461 and CX-6258, a pan-PIM kinase inhibitor, were tested alone and in combination in PC cell lines, in Hi-MYC and PTEN-deficient mouse models and in patient derived xenografts (PDX) of metastatic tissue obtained from a castration-resistant PC patient. Results: CX-5461 inhibited anchorage-independent growth and induced cell cycle arrest in PC cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. Oral administration of 50 mg/kg CX-5461 induced p53 expression and activity and reduced proliferation (Ki-67) and invasion (loss of ductal actin) in Hi-MYC tumors, but not in PTEN-null driven (low MYC) tumors. While 100 mg/kg CX-6258 showed limited effect alone, its combination with CX-5461 further suppressed proliferation and dramatically reduced large invasive lesions in both models. In addition, this rational combination strategy significantly inhibited proliferation and induced cell death in a PDX model of therapy-resistant prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate preclinical efficacy of targeting the ribosome at multiple levels and provide a new approach for the treatment of PC.